Human Growth and Development

Discussion Board Peer Response

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1) Review again the lecture from Video Class #1. There are four YouTube videos contained within that lecture on the following four theories: (a) Psychosexual, (b) Psychosocial, (c) Cognitive, and (d) Ecological. Watch all four videos then choose two theoretical perspectives to summarize based on the videos, the Chapter 2 readings, and the lecture from Video Class #1. In addition to summarizing two theoretical perspectives, describe

After watching the four videos Psychosexual by Freud, Psychosocial by Erikson, Cognitive by Piaget, and Ecological by Bronfenbrenner, I found them to be very interesting. Freud mentioned people personality is formed during their early childhood in four stages. Erikson mentioned a person is identified in eight stages of health. The individual should pass through from birth to death. Piaget mentioned conquering four stages of cognitive development. Bronfenbrenner mentioned human development is influenced by different types of environmental systems. I chose Psychosexual and Psychosocial to be the most interesting.

Sigmund Freud’s position was that a person’s psychological responses and behaviors were reflections of biological instinctual drives (Wong, 2015, pg.25). He felt most individual’s personality is formed during early childhood. Freudian therapy requires a counselor. Counselors can benefit from Freud’s elements of role playing, determinism, instinctual drives, and the unconscious mind. Also, a counselor can benefit from the five psychosexual stages of development oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. Freud feel these stages shapes a client’s development and lifestyle. In those stages, Freud mentioned in the oral stage, the child is getting most of their pleasure from sucking, biting, and chewing. In the anal stage the child gains a sense of controlled environment. The phallic stage is the males desire sexually from his mom and female desire sexually from the father. The latency stage children sexual desires go dormant for a while. The genital stage is where the child looks at others in a sexual mature way. A counselor should keep in mind when referring to Freud’s theory concerning human development each stage of psychosexual development. It must be met effectively for suitable development. If the child misses the right development and parenting during a stage, they may become stuck in, or fixated on that stage.

Erikson’s highlighted that the ego makes positive contributions to human development. The client has to develop and master ideas, attitudes, and skills at each stage of human development. He felt this would help the child grow into a successful individual. They child would be able to contribute to society. He emphasized that the child must meet the eight stages of human development to effectively overcome psychological conflict and develop into a healthy, well adjusted adult. As a counselor, one should know the eight stages Erikson referred to basic trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generality vs stagnation, and ego integrity vs despair.

How elements of each theory could be used in counseling and

The theories offer a background for learning about human development. These theories provide us with an understanding on how various finding may be interpreted. Most of these theories are used in counseling. The theories in the video can assist as a guide to the counselors. The counselor can use these theories to guide us in our decision making concerning human development. Also, individuals dealing with depression, trauma, emotional struggles, behavior patterns, personality disorders, and self-destructive behavior can benefit from theories of human development. To be an effective counselor, we need to research the theories to better understand human development. These theories can be valuable to when you are trying to get to know your clients. It is a mission that is clearly impossible to fulfill without (a) professional knowledge of the nature of human development across the lifespan, (b) the understanding of both normative and exceptional challenges that can be and are expected, and (c) the use of research and theory on human development to guide professional practice decision (Wong, 2015). Freud’s element of theory can be used in counseling to focus on mental illness having a psychological cause and suggestions evidence that cultural differences has an influence on psychological behavior. Erikson’s element focuses on identity crisis, identity achievement, and identity diffusion. Piaget’s focuses on the plans and ways to establishing knowledge in order to help the client understand the world. Bronfenbrenner’s element of theory focuses on human beings forming an environment that mold the path of human development.

2) The benefit of these perspectives on human development counseling.

Individuals go through many changes over the course of a life span and having a baby is one of them. Having a child is a life change event. Getting pregnant and having a baby is one of the most exciting times in a mother’s life. Although, it can be also be one of the most stressful times in a soon to be mother’s life. This can sometime trigger many conflicts and emotion times during the pregnancy. Health and financial issues can become complicated at this time. If the parent planned the pregnancy this can develop a new intimate relationship. If the pregnancy is unplanned this can be stressful. As an effective counselor, we must not impose our values on the client and respect the viewpoint of the client. The counselor’s primary responsibility is to respect the dignity and promote the welfare of the client (ACA, 2014, A.1.a). The counselor should inquire about abuse in the client’s life and let her know about resources that can assist her. A rapport will need to be established between the client and the counselor.

Describe prenatal development.

Each pregnancy is different and there are many changes that will occur doing this time. Your body will change and hormones will be unbalanced. During this time a woman psychological concerns changes during the first trimester of pregnancy. Her emotional will changes during the first trimester even though her body may look the same. During this time, miscarriage is a concern of the mother and this can cause confusion and frustration. The baby is swallowing, has a sense of touch, and will hold the umbilical cord. The baby can distinguish light and darkness. During the second trimester, the mother is more dependent on the father. Her body begins to change and this will increase her stress level. The baby can open and close their eyes. They can cough, blink, and sucking will develop. During the third trimester, the mother is filled with expectancy of delivery. Her sex drive diminishes and this can be a concern. The baby immune system is developed. The baby is inhaling and exhaling. The lungs are not fully developed at this time.

– Then, describe how knowledge of prenatal development is critical to understanding human development from a counseling perspective.

Prenatal development is critical to a healthy fetus. It is broken down into three trimesters. The fetus goes through dramatic physical changes while in the utero. The fetus continues to grow for nine months. The cognitive development involves the brain which is the first organ to develop. The social and emotional development involves the connection between the mother’s emotions and how her baby feels in the womb (Wong, 2015, pg. 52). The unborn baby is aware and can share how the mother feel. If the mother is feeling stressed the child will feel the stress. From a counselor’s perspective, the mother will need to be educated on the prenatal aspect of pregnancy. Counseling can benefit her through her pregnancy.

Prenatal researchers believe there is a connection between a mother’s emotions and how her baby feels. Provide at least three examples of counseling issues that may add risk to the mother and/or baby.

There are several factors that can cause a pregnancy to be high risk. These factors include maternal nutrition, maternal stress, and domestic violence. It is important for the mother to eat correctly during her pregnancy. Her diet is vital during pregnancy because this contributes to the development of her unborn child. If this doesn’t happen, she will be undernourished because the mother has not ingested the right amount of food. Also, the mother needs to consume the right vitamin and minerals during the pregnancy. Malnutrition occurs when one or more of the essential nutrients is missing or when nutrients that are needed for healthy development are present but in the wrong proportions (Wong, 2020).

Maternal stress during pregnancy impacts the fetal development of the child. When the mother is upset her body produces hormones that can enter the fetus’s bloodstream. This can cause the fetus to become frequently stressed. This can cause the baby to be colicky, gastrointestinal upset, and emotional disturbed. These factors can sometime cause spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and reduce baby weight. It is vital that the mother seeking counseling to lessens her stress level during pregnancy.

Domestic violence or domestic abuse is a worldwide concern. During pregnancy abuse can get worse. This can be a risk to the baby and mother. A lot of times the mother thinks things will get better if she gets pregnant. Domestic violence during pregnancy will cause danger to the baby, vaginal bleeding, risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and fetal injury. It can be challenging to try and get the mother to leave because of financial situations. The counselor can work with the mother to develop a plan to leave the situation. The plan would consist of getting a prepaid phone, getting an order of protection, and creating a code to let her friends, keep picture and evidence of abuse and family know she was in danger. The mother will need counseling whether she leave or not.

– Select one of these examples and describe how you might approach your work with a mother experiencing that specific issue. How can you assist this client?

Counseling a pregnant woman concerning domestic abuse thought provoking. Although, we do not want to influence the client, we have to look out for the well-being of the client and the unborn child. Counselors has to enable the growth and development of the client in a way that helps with the welfare of the client and encourage the development of a health relationship. It can be challenging to try and get the mother to leave because of financial situations. The counselor can work with the mother to develop a plan to leave the situation. The plan would consist of getting a prepaid phone, getting an order of protection, and creating a code to let her friends, keep picture and evidence of abuse and family know she was in danger. The mother will need counseling whether she leave or not.

Consider two distinct experiences: postpartum depression and depression resulting from a miscarriage, stillbirth, or termination.

Pregnancy can be a new experience for some parents. Sometime the pregnancy doesn’t go as planned. It can be heartbreaking and depressing to carry a child and lose the child to miscarriage, stillbirth, or termination. This can be very shocking for both parents. Due to the mother losing the child, there may be a period of depression and postpartum depression. There are stages that the mom goes through after losing a child. There are five stages the parent goes through denial, anger, bargaining, sadness and regret, and the final stage is acceptance. Depression can affect both parents. Mothers can be depressed mainly during the first trimester because the changes her body is going through. Also, postpartum depression is defined as moderate to severe depression after the birth of a child (Wong, 2015, pg. 64). Postpartum usually happen about three months after the birth of the baby. Postpartum affect women in the rural area because of their socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge, history of abuse, and depression etc. Counselor should work with client during their first trimester. The counselor should build a rapport with the client and discuss changes to be made, how the birth could impact her future, and any changes that need to be made. This can help the new mom set the stage for a healthier unborn child and increase a healthier parenting style after the child is born.

– How might depression be similar for these clients? How might it be different?

Depression and postpartum depression can exist in the mother. Depression can happen throughout the pregnancy. Postpartum depression happens after the birth of the child. The mother can experience lack of sleep, or an increase in sleep, anxiety, worry about being a mother and a good parent. These factors can be seen in depression and postpartum depression. The different is can be during and after birth of a child and postpartum happens after the birth of a child.

– As a counselor, what would your role be in working with these clients? Which strategies might you employ?

Counselors and their clients work jointly in devising counseling plans that offer reasonable promise of success and are consistent with the abilities, temperament, developmental level, and circumstances of clients. Counselors and clients regularly review and revise counseling plans to assess their continued viability and effectiveness, respecting clients’ freedom of choice (ACA, 2014, A.1.c.). It is important that the counselor notice that sometime a pregnancy symptom can be confused with mental health issues. Building a rapport with the client open the door for trust. Also, group therapy has been effective in counseling pregnant women. There are other resources to help the client. I would focus on the whole family, issues literature to educate the mom on pregnancy, and develop a plan to continue counselor session throughout the pregnancy.

5) Watch the following movie trailer that provides “light comedy” about a relationship during the prenatal stage of development. Pretend this couple is your new client. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

Describe your role as this couples’ therapist.

In this scenario there is a need for counseling. One-night stands that leads to pregnancy could use some couple counseling. The role of the couple therapist is resolve and recognize conflicts and improve the couple marriage. This couple could have used couple therapy prior to getting married. Couple therapy would have given this couple the opportunity to make thoughtful decision about building and strengthening their relationship before creating a child or going their separate ways. As an effective counselor, I would bring the couple in for joint therapy sessions. Present skills to help build their relationship by open communication and problem solving. Try and get a better understand of the conflict by discussing the good and bad parts of the relationship. Working with the couple will help them to identity the problems.

– Provide possible avenues of psycho-educational guidance and feedback.

A group situation will allow the couple to learn about each other. This will allow them to build skill in a supportive environment. Couple counseling can be tough. Seeking help is more effective than ignoring your problems or hoping they go away or get better on their own. Group therapy is a great way to get feedback. The clients will find the experience to be empowering and insightful.

– What type of warning signs and symptoms would you be assessing for?

The warning signs in this scenario is the individuals didn’t know each other, sex on the first night, and creating a child. Another warning sign is keeping the child with no experience concerning raising a child. While assessing the couple I would inform the couple about the methods of communicating and resolving their issues.

– Provide strategies for how your clients can deal with their stress and manage their anxieties specific to their situation.

Mothers will experience some form of stress during pregnancy. We know stress is not good for the mother or the unborn child. Stress can possibly affect the baby’s development. The mother will focus on stress reduction to prevent certain complications. She should cut back on activities, eat healthy, maintain a positive support network, and keep in contact with family and friends. She could participate in child birthing classes, and utilize relaxation techniques. Counselors are very beneficial to maintain mental stability.


American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA:


Wong, D. W., Hall, K. R., Justice, C. A., & Hernandez, L. W. (2015). Counseling

individuals through the lifespan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

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