Read and provide a response for the following Post from another student:
Peter Nathan –
Cognitive development and Jan Piaget is a theory about how human beings gather and organize information. For instance, his theory was concerned with four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The video utilized animation to show examples for a child progressing through these stages. In the video a glass of orange juice in two different size glasses with the same amount of orange juice was given to explain preoperational stage. A benefit of this in counseling and human development is that arithmetically a child at age 2-7 years of age should then be able to compute that 5+3= 8 or 8-3=5 and is a way to interpret the intellectual development of a child.
Ecological theory of development was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. The video utilized spheres within each other each other as microsystem the inner most followed by mesosystem, ecosystem, macrosystem and lastly chronosystem. Chronosystem was the fifth system which was added. The theory emphasizes environmental factors and the life span development of human beings. Related to child development parent-child interactions or microsystems have an impact on the child’s development. The mesosystem as noted in the video showed child interactions in school setting with teachers. The exosystemic further showed interactions of a child playing with other students. This is of importance when working as a professional counselor in a school system to address behavioral issues. This could be a result of environmental issues in the home of the student from a developmental standpoint microsystem parent influenced.
2) Prenatal development is presented in three phases of trimesters. The first trimester weeks 1 to 12 is a period when the fetus undergoes the most dramatic changes physically. During this phase at 8 days of fertilization in the fetus the brain which is the first organ to develop starts to develop. In the second trimester organs continue to develop further and begin to function. In the third trimester the fetus growth activity may begin to decline. It is important to understand this from a counseling standpoint since the mother and fetus are quite vulnerable. For instance, the ingestion of alcohol or smoking by mother is transmitted to the fetus and can affect to physical development of the child. Nutrition is paramount during this period and can significant implications for the health and development of the fetus and future development of the child.
3) Three risks that may affect the mothers that are issues that counselors could explore are: domestic violence, teratogens, and maternal stress. Teratogens are aspects that are related to disease, drugs, and other environmental agents that can harm a developing fetus. Specifically, teratogens are infections, chemicals and medications. Domestic violence is a global problem. Cultural understanding is an aspect that may be of consideration when working with a mother. Related to domestic violence counselors can help by developing a plan with the mother for leaving to identify a safe place to go, making a list of items to take, obtaining a prepaid cellular phone, getting a court order of protection, creating a code word for friends and family when in danger, obtaining an extra set of care keys, keeping evidence of abuse and identifying financial supports. It is imperative to address mental and emotional needs Wong, Hall, Justice, and Hernandez (2015).
4) Similarities between postpartum depression and depression could be symptoms of losss of sleep, or increased sleep. A significant consideration is a mother that is diagnosed with major depression prior to pregnancy is the continuation of medications which could have implications for the development of the fetus. It is important to utilize as a strategy the DSM-5 and tools such as the Beck Depression Inventory. It is further important to recognize the symptoms for postpartum depression develop within the first three months after birth and can take up to one year before developing. My role as a counselor is to listen and provide empathy and caring. To be nonjudgmental and to consider cultural diversity. When working with a client related to miscarriage, still birth and termination there is the grief and loss. The Elisabeth Kubler-Ross model recognizing the stages: denial. anger, bargaining, and acceptance. It is important that each grieves individually and to recognize the whole family.
5) My role as a couple’s therapist related to the video is to base upon a psycho-educational perspective is to present aspects that are prevalent related to childbirth. It is noted that anxiety and depression may be a symptom of both the mother and father. In a study conducted by Chan, Ngai, and Ip (2009) they found that childbirth psychoeducation programs in strengthening women’s resourcefulness and reducing depressive symptoms utilizing cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills was effective in reducing perinatal depression. Another aspect to consider is both the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories in conjunction with the DSM-5 to explore symptoms related to these behaviors. In a study by Murray & Murray (2004) they found that solution-focused therapy was effective initiating communication with couples in explore through the Couple’s Resource Map important aspects such as: personal spheres (i.e. person dreams, coping skills, values, self-esteem, and self-awareness), relationship spheres (i.e. shared dreams, relationship skills, knowledge about partner, and strategies to manage negativity), contextual spheres (i.e. her career, his career, family, friends, and cultural community resources). Another way to manage stress is to explore various mindfulness techniques. An important role as a couples’ therapist is to be nonjudgmental and to show empathy and compassion.
Chan, S., Ip, W., & Ngai, F. (2009). The effects of a childbirth psychoeducation program on learned resourcefulness, maternal role competence and perinatal depression: a quasi-experiment. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 40 (1) 1298-1306
Hall, K. R., Hernandez, L. W., Justice, C. A., Wong, D. W. (2015). Counseling Individuals through the lifespan. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Murray, C. E., Murray, T. L. (2004). Solution-focused premarital counseling: helping couples build vision for their marriage. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 30 (3) 349-358.
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