Case Study: Manchester
|Terms and Names
urbanization City building and the movement of people to cities
middle class A social class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
|Before You Read
In the last section, you saw how the Industrial Revolution began.
In this section, you will read about some of its effects.
As You Read
Use an outline to organize the summaries’ main ideas and details.
Industrialization Changes Life (Pages 723–725)
How did industrialization change people’s ways of life?
Industrialization brought many changes to the British people. More people could use coal to heat their homes, eat better food, and wear better clothing.
Another change was urbanization—city building and the movement of people to cities. For centuries, most people in Europe had lived in the country. By the 1800s, more and more people lived in cities, where they had come to find jobs.
Living conditions were bad in crowded cities. Many people could not find good housing, schools, or police protection. Filth, garbage, and sickness were part of life in the slums. A person in a city could expect to live 17 years. In the countryside, a person could expect to live 38 years.
Working conditions were also bad. The average worker spent 14 hours a day on the job, 6 days a week. Many workers were killed or seriously injured in accidents.
Class Tensions Grow; Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Who were the members of the middle class?
Some people’s lives were improved in the new economy. The Industrial Revolution created new wealth for the middle class, which included skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers. People in the middle class enjoyed comfortable lives in pleasant homes. This class began to grow in size. Some people grew wealthier than the nobles who had been in control for many centuries.
The Industrial Revolution had many good effects. It created wealth. It created jobs for workers and over time helped many of them live better lives. It produced better diets, better housing, and better clothing at lower prices.
The Mills of Manchester (Pages 726–728)
What changes occurred in Manchester?
The English city of Manchester is a good example of how industrialization changed society. Rapid growth made the city crowded and filthy. The factory owners risked their money and worked long hours to make their businesses grow. In return, they enjoyed huge profits and built huge houses. The workers also worked long hours, but had few benefits. Many of these workers were children, some only six years old. The British government did not limit the use of children as workers until 1819.
The large amount of industry in Manchester caused environmental problems. Coal smoke and cloth dyes from the factories polluted the air and water. Yet, Manchester also created many jobs, a variety of consumer goods, and great wealth.
As you read this case study, take notes to answer questions about how industrialization changed the way people lived and worked.
|What changes did industrialization bring about for the following groups of people?|
|1. Poor city dwellers|
|2. Factory workers|
|3. Wealthy merchants, factory owners, shippers|
|5. Lower middle class of factory overseers and skilled workers|
|6. Large landowners and aristocrats|
|What were the long-term consequences of the Industrial Revolution for each of the following?|
|7. The environment||8. Education|
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