Successful Aging

Final Exam Study Guide


Successful Aging

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Measures of successful aging that assess the emotions of older adults rather than how they think about their lives would include self-ratings of:

  1. overall happiness.
  2. life satisfaction.
  3. subjective health.
  4. relationships with others.


According to the _____________________, it is surprising that older adults are able to maintain high levels of well-being than would be suggested by their actual situations in life.

  1. social indicator model
  2. paradox of well-being
  3. active ageing hexagon
  4. simple adaptation model


Which of the following factors would be considered a “social indicator” in research on age and subjective well-being?

  1. satisfaction with friends
  2. economic security
  3. geographic location
  4. interest in the arts


Increases in longevity may contribute to the greater productivity of older creative individuals by allowing them more:

  1. financial stability.
  2. interaction with their children.
  3. time to be by themselves.
  4. resources for collaboration.


The original World Health Organization model of Active Ageing includes which key component?

  1. genetic inheritance
  2. engagement with life
  3. body mass index
  4. physical environment


Active and healthy ageing, as proposed by the World Health Organization, takes into account which set of influences on the individual throughout life?

  1. genetics
  2. cognition
  3. education
  4. culture

The World Health Organization’s concept of Active and Healthy Ageing incorporates which feature not included in the Rowe and Kahn model of successful aging?

  1. physical health
  2. cognitive functioning
  3. social engagement
  4. diversity


Individuals over the age of 80 with cognitive performance comparable to or better than middle-aged adults are known as:

  1. superagers
  2. active agers
  3. supercentenarians
  4. oldest-old


The biopsychosocial model of creativity in later life regards definitions of eminence as reflecting which set of factors?

  1. psychological
  2. educational
  3. biological
  4. sociocultural


Long Term Care


Patient advocates known as _____________ in long-term care institutions were guaranteed as part of nursing home reforms.

  1. ombudspersons
  2. geropsychologists
  3. geriatricians
  4. assisted care aides


The majority of care provided to patients in residential care facilities is provided by:

  1. licensed nurses.
  2. physician’s assistants.
  3. registered nurses.

The majority of residents in assisted living facilities pay for their costs out of what types of funds?

  1. Combination of Medicare and Medicaid
  2. Personal savings and pensions
  3. Salaries paid in return for room and board/Contributions from charitable foundations
  4. Shared costs among groups of residents


The majority of home health agencies operate on what financial basis?

  1. private, non-profit
  2. public, for profit
  3. public, non-profit
  4. private, for profit


Which sector of long-term care employs a majority of registered nurses?

  1. assisted living
  2. respite care
  3. board and care home
  4. home health care


As of 2019, there were a reported _____________ individuals, mostly 65 and older, receiving adult day services in the community.

  1. 9 million
  2. 120 thousand
  3. 286 thousand
  4. 3 million


Medicare falls into which overall category of funding for health care in the U.S.?

  1. federally-funded medical and long-term care
  2. state-funded costs of outpatient care
  3. privately-funded personal health insurance
  4. pensions used to pay for long-term care


The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is responsible for overseeing:

  1. legislative efforts to improve long-term care.
  2. privately funded health insurance.
  3. federal and state funded health programs.
  4. payments made for private in-home care.


In 2000, the Administration for Community Living was formed by the U.S. federal government to support:

  1. halfway houses for older adults.
  2. geriatric partial day hospitals.
  3. family caregivers at home.
  4. group board and care homes.


In the OSCAR scorecard, a facility receives a deficiency labeled “L” for which type of violation?

  1. a pattern of actual harm that is not immediate jeopardy
  2. widespread conditions that put residents in immediate jeopardy
  3. isolated instances with moderate potential for harm
  4. no actual harm, or isolated cases of minimal harm


The number one deficiency in U.S. nursing homes in 2018, involving 45% of all institutions, was:

  1. lack of infection control.
  2. high-accident environment.
  3. lack of pharmacy consultation.
  4. unsanitary food handling.






Which of the following is a criterion for culture change in nursing homes?

  1. offering only communal dining
  2. allowing residents to have privacy
  3. requiring residents to attend group meetings
  4. discouraging too many family visits


Death and Dying


The definition of death was changed by Nova Scotia in 2019 to incorporate which feature of loss of brain functioning?

  1. recognize familiar objects and people
  2. memory for recent events
  3. control and co-ordinate critical functions
  4. making appropriate decisions


Which law was passed in the United States to serve as a model for individual states to adopt?

  1. Uniform Determination of Death
  2. Ethical Standards for End-of-Life Care
  3. Patient Self-Determination
  4. Respecting Human and Organ Tissue Donation



Cancer is the leading cause of death for which age group in the U.S.?

  1. 65 and older
  2. unintentional injuries.
  3. 45-64
  4. 15-24


Which state in the U.S. has the highest age-adjusted mortality rate?

  1. West Virginia
  2. Tennessee
  3. Kentucky
  4. Texas



Researchers believe that the main reason for the relationship between social class and mortality appears to be due to which factor in lower class occupations?

  1. Poor supervision by employers in providing deadlines
  2. Insufficient choice in determining pace and timing of work
  3. Less time to spend with friends and family
  4. Lower salary and longer hours


People with which marital status have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate in the U.S.

  1. Married
  2. Divorced
  3. Never married
  4. Separated


Researchers believe that the main reason for the relationship between education and mortality appears to be due to which factor associated with higher education?

  1. More control in choice of occupation.
  2. Better health and lifestyle habits.
  3. Greater likelihood of living in cities.
  4. Higher familiarity with technology.


A study of mortality rates associated with occupation showed that workers in higher status jobs at the managerial and professional levels were more affected by _____________ than workers in lower status jobs.

  1. pressures to perform
  2. lack of control over job conditions
  3. economic downturns
  4. poorer health habits



The role of the environment in affecting health risk factors was demonstrated in a study showing the effect of ____________ on mortality rates.

  1. noise levels
  2. ultraviolet light
  3. climate change
  4. air pollution



Research on fitness trackers in older women provided evidence that walking __________ steps can help to lower mortality rates.

  1. 15,000
  2. 4400
  3. 7500
  4. 10,000



Older adults who fracture their hips may have double the risk for mortality due to which potential complication?

  1. chronic respiratory disease
  2. paralysis of lower limbs
  3. systemic septic infection
  4. osteoarthritis



The role of social relationships in mortality was indicated by a study of men showing that network size predicted _____% of the relationship between job status and mortality.

  1. 27
  2. 12
  3. 33
  4. 54


The death ethos of a culture can be inferred, for example, from:

  1. belief in the presence of ghosts.
  2. whose deaths are publicly celebrated.
  3. physical changes preceding death.
  4. age distribution of mortality.


A cultural anthropologist is search through burial records and photos of gravestones from England in the 1800s. The evidence suggests that the English believed it was noble to die for a cause and that death should be glorified. This evidence is consistent with the ethos of ______ death.

  1. tamed
  2. invisible
  3. beautiful
  4. dignified


In Ancient Egypt, the ______________ was considered to be the guidebook to ensure that an individual would be guided through the underworld and into the afterlife.

  1. Joy of Heaven
  2. Sword of Moses
  3. Saga of the King
  4. Book of the Dead


According to the perspective known as ________________ Theory, activating a person’s thoughts about death may trigger a set of positive changes, including closer relationships, greater creativity, and more connection to others.

  1. Terror Management
  2. Life Review
  3. Legitimization of Biography
  4. Death with Dignity



A patient in the final stages of terminal cancer writes out her wishes for the amount of time she will be kept alive before entering hospice care. The ability to exert this degree of autonomy is reflected in the concept of the ___________ death.

  1. social
  2. immediate
  3. good
  4. accepted



A woman was diagnosed with terminal cancer but she is convinced that, despite the odds, she mother will survive this disease.  The medical staff has made it clear that she only has months left to live.  It appears that the woman is in which of the Kübler-Ross stages of dying?

  1. bargaining
  2. resistance
  3. depression
  4. denial


In the Kübler-Ross model of the five stages of dying, people who feel that they could change their odds after being diagnosed with a terminal disease by giving money to charity might be considered to be in which stage?

  1. bargaining
  2. acceptance
  3. contemplation
  4. denial


Making sense of the story of your life prior to death is a process known as:

  1. legitimization of biography
  2. death with dignity
  3. terror management
  4. the good death


Life support orders as part of an Advance Directive would include directions regarding which bodily functions?

  1. bladder control
  2. digestion
  3. hearing
  4. mobility



What is known as “MOLST” in an advance directive refers to which healthcare team orders?

  1. minimal
  2. mitigation
  3. medical
  4. management


A healthcare proxy would be involved in which set of decisions for a dying patient?

  1. preferred place of burial
  2. type of hospice room decorations
  3. clothing to be worn at the funeral
  4. specific life-sustaining treatments


It is most likely that a dying patient would receive palliative care in which treatment setting?

  1. intensive care unit
  2. rehabilitation facility
  3. hospice
  4. physician’s office


The Institute of Medicine recommends which approach to delivery of end-of-life care?

  1. palliative
  2. person-centered
  3. physician-assisted
  4. awareness of finitude




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