Skeleton Comparative Anatomy

  1. Skeleton Comparative Anatomy

We can use comparative anatomy to study evolutionary relationships among organisms.  If two organisms have similar structures, it might indicate a common evolutionary origin.  The more similar the structures, the closer the evolutionary relationship.  Use the following link to complete the table below. Once on the site, click on Taxon to choose the different species for comparison. You select the final species to complete the comparison table.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Skeleton Comparative Anatomy
Get a plagiarism free paperJust from $13/Page
Order Essay

Table 1. Comparison of an Adult Human, Chimpanzee, Orangutan, and Gorilla

Skeleton Part Human Chimpanzee Orangutan Gorilla  


Number of rib Pairs


Total number of Vertebrae  





Shape and size of clavicle  



Type of thumb  





Approximate Ratio of arm length to body  



Prehensile foot









  1. Molecular Structure and Evolutionary Relationships

Procedure:Use Figure 1 to compare the amino acid sequences of a protein that is homologous for the 20 organisms shown. Theprotein, cytochromec, is an enzyme important in the breakdown of food molecules by a cell. As part of the electron transport chain, it helps release the energy in food molecules so that it can be used by the cell. Each amino acid is represented by a unique letter in the chart.


Compare the sequence of amino acids (letters) in human cytochrome c to the sequences for each of the 5 species listed below by counting the number of differences. HINT: Highlight or underline the organism being checked, then circle each amino acid which is different from the one above it in thehuman sequence (use pencil). It helps to use a ruler or other straight edge. Notice that the amino acids showing no differences in any of the organisms are printed in a different color font, so you can just ignore them when you scan the line of letters. When an organism has a “-” instead of an amino acid that means there is no amino acid there. When comparing a “-” to an organism that has an amino acid at the position, it should be considered as a difference. When both organisms have a “-” at that spot, it is not considered as a difference.


Table 1. Number of Amino Acid Differences in Cytochrome C Protein

Human and Rhesus monkey: ____________

Human and Horse: ____________

Human and Kangaroo: ____________

Human and Chicken: ____________

Dog and Pig/Cow/Sheep: ____________


Bullfrog and Tuna: ____________

Human and Bull frog: ____________

Rabbit and Whale: ____________

Human and Neurospora: ____________

Human and Candida: ____________





  1. Cytochrome c in humans is most similar to cytochrome c from what organism?



  1. Cytochrome c in humans is least similar to cytochrome c from what organism?



  1. Do the data from the amino acid sequence analysis generally agree with the anatomical data that was used to make the cladogram shown in Figure 2 (e., do organisms with fewershared anatomical traits also have more amino acid differences)? Why or why not?(Figure 2 is in a separate pdf file)




  1. Based on the molecular data, make a general statementabout the “human-kangaroo” evolutionaryrelationshipas compared to the “bullfrog-tuna”





  1. Using the molecular data, make a general statement which compares the “rabbit-whale” relationship to the “dog-pig” relationship. Does the cladogram agree with this statement?Explain your reasoning.





General Questions:

  1. Would you expect a fossil buried hundreds of years ago to look like a modern-day organism? Why or why not?




  1. How would you recognize the fact that a given species has been evolving since it arose?




  1. Pigs, cows, and sheep have the same sequence of amino acids in their cytochromec protein. Explain how these different species of animals can have identical cytochrome c proteins and still be different species.



Homework Valley
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Our Advantages

Plagiarism Free Papers

All our papers are original and written from scratch. We will email you a plagiarism report alongside your completed paper once done.

Free Revisions

All papers are submitted ahead of time. We do this to allow you time to point out any area you would need revision on, and help you for free.


A title page preceeds all your paper content. Here, you put all your personal information and this we give out for free.


Without a reference/bibliography page, any academic paper is incomplete and doesnt qualify for grading. We also offer this for free.

Originality & Security

At Homework Valley, we take confidentiality seriously and all your personal information is stored safely and do not share it with third parties for any reasons whatsoever. Our work is original and we send plagiarism reports alongside every paper.

24/7 Customer Support

Our agents are online 24/7. Feel free to contact us through email or talk to our live agents.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

We work around the clock to see best customer experience.


Flexible Pricing

Our prices are pocket friendly and you can do partial payments. When that is not enough, we have a free enquiry service.


Admission help & Client-Writer Contact

When you need to elaborate something further to your writer, we provide that button.


Paper Submission

We take deadlines seriously and our papers are submitted ahead of time. We are happy to assist you in case of any adjustments needed.


Customer Feedback

Your feedback, good or bad is of great concern to us and we take it very seriously. We are, therefore, constantly adjusting our policies to ensure best customer/writer experience.