Research Utilization Synopsis

Medical Errors in Nursing


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A medical error is a “preventable adverse effect of care.” Medical errors arise due to human fallibility compounded by a poor healthcare system architecture that provides for error. Medical Errors, such as misdiagnosis, infection, medication, and bad medical devices are common worldwide. These errors are significant because they can have irreversible effects. Current failures arecaused bymiscommunication, staffing patterns and workflow, inadequate policies, and technical failures(AHRQ’s Patient Safety Initiative:Building Foundations, Reducing Risk: AHRQ Archive 2003).In addition to significant annual quantities of therapeutic costs, such accidents result in high morbidity and mortality rates.

Medical Errors area major issue worldwide, that can lead to morbidity and death. Medical errors can jeopardize the nursing profession and cause preventable risks for patients. Nurses are responsible for the treatment, advocacy, and welfare of patients. Drug management and avoidance of medication errors place further responsibilities on health care providers and nurses. The number of patient mortality rates associated with medical errors is estimated at 48,000-98,000 per year in the United States of America. This statistic only reflects the deaths of hospitalizedinpatients (Eastman, 2006).

Error reporting is crucial for the improvement of patient safety and policies. Reports mitigate the impact of mistakes and initiates a root-cause analysis of the problem. Moreover, monitoring reduces future mistakes, reduces emotional pain, and financial expenses.



Results of articles.


The delivery of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) prescription medicine order lowers the risk of a mistake by 48% (95% CI 41%-55%). In 2008, it was expected that a 12.5 percent drop in prescription errors or an estimated 127.4 million medication errors in the USA in one year would happen, considering the magnitude of this effect and the degree of CPOE usage in hospitals. The results indicate that the CPOE in-hospital acute care could significantly minimize the incidence of drug mistakes.The weaknesses of this study stems from the uncertainty of whether CPOE contributes to less risk for patient. Further research is needed to better characterize patient harm.In US hospitals, acceptance and usage remain modest, considering CPOE programs’ efficacy in avoiding prescription errors. Increased CPOE uses and existing strategies are expected to eliminate millions of additional drug mistakes annually (Radley, Wasserman, Olsho, Shoemaker, Spranca, & Bradshaw 2013).


Most nursesin this study, made small medical errors without hurting patients. However, only a quarter of the errors made that did not harm the patients were reported by the nurses.And I feel that this was the greatest weakness of this study. There was no way to verify the information that was provided from the nurses. Furthermore, the incidence of prescription errors and the rate of reporting medication errors were substantially decreased. Nurses saw the most significant hurdles to reporting drug mistakes as accusing people rather than the system, fear of reporting/ repercussions, and fear of being disciplined for mistakes. They also describedno documentation if there was no patient injury, orif the error wasperceived as “insignificant”by the nurse. Another complaint was that the medication error reports were time consuming and too long per Nursing (Bayazidi, Zarezadeh, Zamanzadeh, & Parvan 2012).

Kim, M.S.

Electrical pharmacopeia was installed in 67.7% of hospitals, in 50.8%, computed patient care records were installed, in 32.3%, electric dose measurements were used. In 16.1% of Korean hospitals, bar code systems were seen to be the smallest construction size. Increased building rates of IT-based systems for avoiding prescription errors contributed to better protection and a more supportive atmosphere of error monitoring. However, the weakness of this study is the validity of the informationgiven. The information could be biased. This study used a small sample size of hospitals/Safety Chiefs. Long-term care facilities were excluded. Supporting techniques for strengthening the understanding of IT processes will lead to creating the system and encourage the production of a constructive error management atmosphere (Kim, 2012).

Conclusion and plan

From the articles’ analysis, it can be concluded that drug errors are one of the biggest challenges in health care. More specifically, reliable error reporting is necessary for the improvement of policies/procedures to prevent medical errors and for the protection of patients. Hence, to change and eliminate the obstacles to reporting drug errors, the production and deployment of efficient error reporting mechanisms need close consideration. Provided that further obstacles would minimize the reporting of accidents, removing barriers would allow nurses to report prescription errors. The results also indicate that medical practitioners do not report many drug errors, and they feel that reporting would have consequences. The fear of legal action, risks to termination, economic impacts, and detrimental consequences of reporting are the most significant challenges to reporting errors. Further resources have indicated a risk for social and career identity, legal and economic ramifications, and disclosure mechanism as primary hurdles to error reporting and preventions.

Part of the solution is to preserve a society dedicated to the society of remorse, humiliation, or retribution and to understand protection and introduce viable alternatives. Health institutions need to develop a safety culture based on developing systems and looking at medical errors as problems that must be solved. All members of the healthcare team must commit to making healthcare for patients and health professionals better. In addition, collaboration, education, and preparation by organized programs can be an efficient plan to improve patient safety. Acceptance of team members’ efforts, elimination of barriers to reporting mistakes, and advancement in a working atmosphere in which all workers collaborate will positively impact patient care and employee safety. A cultural approach that leads to improved documentation of personal accountabilities over the long term will help eliminates mistakes.

Electronic error reporting systems will help shorten reporting time, shorten the time needed to repair unstable conditions, and notify providers about emerging unsafe trends. Some programs can also promote measures for quality enhancement by developing error reporting systems. The advantages of web-based healthcare monitoring systems, which are readily used by physicians and couldminimize the occurrence of serious errors and dramatically increase patient safety and quality of healthcare. So, the hospital should have such systems in place.


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