Business Research Methods

Group Discussion Reply Board Forums Instructions

The primary goal is to extensively discuss the posts provided below by offering comments, critiques, and suggestions for improvement in order to create a better final response

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You must reply to at least 2 of your group members’ threads (see below) and address at least 1 strength and 1 weakness per reply. Each reply must be 500–600 words, reference at least 2 peer-reviewed sources, and include 2 biblical integrations.

  • Use proper grammar and current 7th Edition APA formatting. (see documents attached for 7th Edition APA format and proper citation format)
  • Submit replies as 2 separate Microsoft Word documents.

Group Discussion Board Forum Part I & II Grading Rubric 50 points

Part II – Two Individual Replies (late posts not accepted) 9 points

Author responded to at least 2 peers by posted deadlines.

Insightful throughout. Completely developed all relevant information. Critical issues and key areas that supported each question were clearly identified, analyzed, and supported.

Offer at least 1 strength and 1 weakness for each reply.

Part II – Direct Application of Scholarly Research & Integration of Biblical Principles 9 points

Author accurately applied 2 or more scholarly (peer reviewed) sources to each question.

Author accurately applied at least 2 scriptural/Biblical principles in each question response.

Structure – 30% Advanced
Part II – Mechanics, APA Style & Word Count 7 points

Correct spelling and grammar are used throughout the essay. There are 0–1 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

There are 0–1 minor errors in 7th edition APA format in the required items: citations and references.

The word count of 500–600 words is met for each question.

Discussion #1

Q 12.6 What invalid Assumption might a Researcher make in Instrument Design? How would each Affect the Instrument?

Instrument design is a measurement instrument which is a sequenced list of questions, crafted using various scale options, complete with an introduction, section transitions, instructions, and a conclusion. When a researcher has to extract information from the participant during a structured interview or observation, they make use of a measurement instrument (Schindler, 2019, p. 294).

When a researcher designs the questionnaire for research work, it is very important to ensure that the question is clear and unambiguous. the design pattern of the questionnaire will constitute the interview questions, which serve as a method for the researcher to extract the necessary information from the applicant. So, it is necessary for the question to be clear and aimed towards the desired result. When a questionnaire is not clear enough to serve the purpose of getting the right response from the applicant, then it will lead to an invalid assumption.

Invalid assumption described a situation, in which the researcher interprets the response of a research applicant to mean something different from the factual response of the applicant.

Brinkman (2009) explains that there is a general rule when formulating a question, the questionnaire should be clear and answerable (para. 5). Measuring instrument help to eliminate the possible error and ensuring that the researcher is asking the right question.

Some of the possible invalid assumptions a researcher could make includes:

  • A researcher’s opinion might be bias with the research question and therefore unintentionally modify the response from the applicant.
  • A researcher’s social desirability bias idea can provide inaccurate answers in an attempt to be accepted.
  • A researcher can hold on to data that falsifies the methodology of the research work.

When the researcher makes the above invalid assumption, it will lead to a reduced potential of the instrument design, which means that the purpose of using the measurement instrument is defeated. Falsification of the restricted data will influence the information process which will have an adverse effect on the instrument. A biased assumption will never be able to provide accurate data that is needed to develop the existing structure of the instrument to improve the credibility of the research.

Ponto (2015) stated that nonresponse errors also have a relationship with an invalid assumption. This is a result of a lack of response from all individuals in the sample, and it can be corrected by having a user-friendly survey system and also engage in follow-up procedures for non-responders (para. 7). In addition, an invalid assumption can be as a result of the method in which the researcher chooses to utilize its instrument of measuring questions, when this is not done in with a view to capturing every aspect of the research, then it will end to an invalidation of the research work. Researchers often trust that the respondent will provide the appropriate and sincere answer, trusting to obey John 8:32, which says that we will know the truth and the truth shall set us free (New International Version, 2011). Also, the researcher should do everything possible to always uphold the integrity of the research process and stay neutral during the research work. I would recommend every researcher to abide by the word of God in Proverbs 10:9, “Whoever walks in integrity walks securely, but he who makes his ways crooked will be found out” (English Standard Version, 2001).


Brinkman, P. W. (2009). Design of a questionnaire instrument. Retrieve from

English Standard Version. (2001). English Standard Bible Online. Retrieve from

New International Version. (2011). New International Bible Online. Retrieve from

Ponto J. (2015). Understanding and evaluating survey research. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 6(2), 168–171. Retrieve from

Schindler, P. S. (2019). Business research methods (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill

Discussion #2:

Q 10.8As part of its bankruptcy restructuring, General Motors (GM) launched an ad campaign that revealed glimmers of a streamlined GM: fewer brands (Cadillac, Buick, Chevrolet, GMC) and fewer models within each brand.

aWhat research would you have done to determine which vehicle models GM should retain and which it should drop?

bWhat would you have measured and with what type of measurement scale

What research would you have done to determine which vehicle models GM should retain and which it should drop?

The downward spiral of GM ended with bankruptcy in the 2008-2009 recession. Restructuring the company was necessary to avoid the failure of support businesses in a domino effect. Deciding which vehicle models General Motors (GM) should retain or drop is a measurement question in the research process. Stepping back, one needs to understand the established research question. Why did GM fail? Then, GM would use investigative questions to bring clarity to that question. The main driver of business success is profitability. Outside events including the housing market and high gas prices coupled with internal bureaucracy, a large dealer network, and lack of innovation led to the downfall of company revenue (A giant falls, 2009). GM was unable to sufficiently lower its fixed cost when the company had reduced sales (Maynard, 2009). Research needs to be conducted on cost-cutting, sales forecasts, historical sales data, sales trends, consumer brand preference, and consumer vehicle model preference. One scenario GM should check is the profitability of its brands.

Using profitability as a standard of measurement, GM should research the various GM vehicle brands to determine which ones are adversely affecting the income statement. An astute finance and accounting division of GM should have this information. The GM executives should know the condition of the company and give careful attention to it” (New International Version, 2011, Proverbs 27:23). The company should use quantitative data to compare Cadillac, Buick, Chevrolet, GMC, Saturn, Pontiac, Saab, and Hummer brands. The research should include year to year sales data including actual results versus business plan. Some key metrics in the cost analysis research include the segmented market share of each brand and its portfolio, totals sells, gross profit, net cash flow, profit margin, and inventory turns. Other metrics that should be considered with recoding are manufacturing capabilities of each facility, dealership support structure, future marketability of the brands, and competing styles of the brands.

What would you have measured and with what type of measurement scale?

Using measurement as a form of analysis allows GM to make logical decisions in this tough situation. This difficult reality is honorable to God in that “the Lord detests dishonest scales, but accurate weights find favor with him” (New International Version, 2011, Proverbs 11:1). GM should utilize two of the four measurement scales. The ordinal scale and ratio scale will capture the needed data to determine which vehicle models to retain or drop. The ordinal scale is useful during data exploration because it allows GM to divide the vehicle models into classification and order (Schindler, 2019). The ordinal scale puts the GM brands head to head, ranking them from strongest to weakest according to profitability. Eliminating brands was crucial to the GM restructuring plan (Klier, & Rubenstein, 2013). Having fewer brands allowed GM “to concentrate product development resources on “few, better” entries, and generate more competitive dealer economics” (General Motors Corporation, 2009, p. 15). Once this ranking was established, GM should use the ratio scale to analyze the remaining top-performing brands. Ratio scales include all four provisions including classification, order, distance, and natural origin (Schindler, 2019). These provisions allow GM to view additional aspects of their brands including “sales, profit, number of employees, shipping distances, return rates on investments, productivity rates” and other categories (Schindler, 2019, p. 234). This action will allow GM to narrow its selection of vehicles to certain styles within each brand family. The ratio scale should be utilized to compare the coupe, sedan, minivan, small SUV, large SUV, and sports car market segment cash flow (More, 2009).


A Giant Falls; The Bankruptcy of General Motors. (2009). The Economist, 391(8634), 61(US).

General Motors Corporation. (2009). 2009-2014 Restructuring plan.

Klier, T., & Rubenstein, J. M. (2013). Restructuring of the U.S. auto industry in the 2008-2009 recession. Economic Development Quarterly, 27(2), 144-159.

Maynard, M. (2009). A painful departure for G.M. Brands. The New York Times.

More, R. (2009). How General Motors Lost its Focus – And its Way. Ivey Business Journal.

New International Version. (2011). Bible Gateway.

New International Version. (2011). Bible Gateway.

Schindler, P. S. (2019). Business research methods (13th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.

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