# ITT vs TOT handout

1. Assume that you are asked to evaluate whether health insurance reduces the out-of-pocket health expenditures (i.e., how much money you spend). Explain why comparing out-of-pocket expenditures between insured and uninsured people may not be an accurate evaluation of health insurance. Be detailed, specific, and fully explain your answer.
2. Assume that you are asked to evaluate whether health insurance reduces the out-of-pocket health expenditures (i.e., how much money you spend). Explain why a randomized trial is a better way to evaluate whether this intervention will work than a non-randomized design. Be detailed, specific, and fully explain your answer.
3. How long (in months) did the King et al., (2009) study wait before they evaluated the effects of health insurance?
4. Do you think that the results of the King et al., (2009) study would be different if the Treatment group would have had health insurance for a longer period of time? Why or why not?
5. Which of the following is a result of the King et al., (2009) paper?(MC)
6. Which of the following is NOT a result of the King et al., (2009) paper? (MC)
8. What is an encouragement design?
9. What does ITT stand for?
10. What does TOT stand for?
11. You conduct a randomized trial where you offer health insurance to the Treatment group; the Control group receives nothing. One-quarter (25%) of the group is in the Treatment group. You find that mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Control group are \$500, but mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Treatment group are \$250. Calculate the ITT (in \$).
12. You conduct a randomized trial where you offer health insurance to the Treatment group; the Control group receives nothing. One-half (50% of the sample) is assigned Treatment group. Only half of the Treatment group enrolls in health insurance. You find that mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Control group are \$500, but mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Treatment group are \$300. Calculate the ITT (in \$).
13. You conduct a randomized trial where you offer health insurance to the Treatment group; the Control group receives nothing. One-half (50% of the sample) is assigned Treatment group. Within the Treatment group, only half of them enroll in health insurance; nobody in the Control group enrolls. You find that mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Control group are \$500, but mean out-of-pocket expenditures in the Treatment group are \$300. Calculate the TOT (in \$).

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