Public Health Functions     

In 1998 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies of Science (NAS) published a review entitled “The futures of Public Health” setting out Core Public Health functions and the ten essential public health services. These Core Functions and Essential Services are presented in your textbook and discussed in lecture.

Assessment

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  1. Monitor health status to identify and solve community health problems
  2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community

Policy Development

  1. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues
  2. Mobilize community partnerships and action to identify and solve health problems
  3. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts

Assurance

  1. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety
  2. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable
  3. Assure competent public and personal health care workforce
  4. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services

Serving All Function

  1. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

 

In this exercise you will review the current public health response to the Covid-19 outbreak and identify public health actions at the Federal and State/local level.  The educational goal is to better understand the type of public health actions taken at both the State and Federal level.

 

Please complete both tables as described here.

 

Federal Level Public Health. (see attached Table 1)

 

  • Identify 3 Public Health Actions in each major Core Function.
  • For each public health action indicate:
    1. Describe the action
    2. Who is taking the action? (Which Federal Agency or other organization)
    3. Explain why the action relates to the Core Function you identified.
    4. Identify which essential service(s) are served by the Public Health action you selected.

 

 

State Level Public Health. (see attached Table 2)

 

  • Identify 3 Public Health Actions in each major Core Function.
  • For each public health action indicate:
    1. Describe the action
    2. Who is taking the action? (Which State Agency or other organization)
    3. Explain why the action relates to the Core Function you identified.
    4. Identify which essential service(s) are served by the Public Health action you selected.

 

Table 1:  Federal Level Response: (e.g. CDC, NIH, FDA, White House Task Force)

Core Function Federal

Agency

Public Health Action Taken Explain the Core Function and

identify the essential service

Notes: (URL)
Assessment CDC Monitoring cases CDC top brass closely monitors cases and finds best approaches to protect the public.  
NIH Testing NIH top officials ensure that monitoring of cases continues uninterrupted.  
FDA Identify disaster-prone areas The FDA database demarcates areas that are most prone to the effects of the virus.  
       
Policy Development Whitehouse Executive order: Closing Public amenities The president closing schools and sporting activities to minimize the spread of the virus.  
Whitehouse Executive order: Defense production Act The president ordering the industry to start producing ventilators.  
NIH Warning against unapproved drug use The NIH directors firmly warn the public against using unapproved drugs especially antibiotics.  
       
Assurance Whitehouse Mobilizing funds The president through the treasury department avails funds for PPEs, mobilizing health workers.  
CDC Mobilizing health workers The CDC ensures that every state is well covered in terms of health workers from different specialties.  
NIH Directors workforce mobilization The NIH director collaborates with leaders from national health bodies to ensure that they communicate uniform messages.  
       
Research NIH Vaccine development NIH scientists collaborate with their counterparts around the world to develop a reliable vaccine.  
CDC Impact on other diseases Scientists study the effect of the virus on other diseases, more also possible aggravations.  
FDA Plasma Therapy Viability Scientists study the efficacy of novel therapy such as the plasma therapy to treat patients.  
       

 

 

 

Table 2:  State Level Response: (e.g.  Dept of Health, County level manager, State Governor/legislature etc.)

 

 

Core Function Agency or NGO Public Health Action Taken Explain the Core Function and

identify the essential service

Notes: (URL)
Assessment Governor Monitoring resources The governor providers resources where they are required specially to purchase PPEs.  
Dept of Health Testing Health workers ensuring that testing is taking place as required.  
legislature Mobilizing congresspersons Congresspersons commune to discuss the best approach to tackle the pandemic in their state. Considering input from county level managers.  
       
Policy Development legislature Developing emergency policy Congresspersons enact relevant policy such as the conversion of schools into emergency treatment centers.  
Governor Enacting policy The governor assents to emergency policy in a timely manner.  
County level manager Addressing gap areas Ensuring cracks in emergency policy at county level is addressed. Accomplished in conjunction with community leaders who understand the most vulnerable areas.  
       
Assurance Governor Enforcing curfew Enforcing strict in-houses policy particularly during night time to contain people movements thus minimize virus transmissions. Enforced with police help.  
Dept of Health Mobilizing health specialists Gather the necessary health specialists and distribute them to all hospitals as necessary.  
County level manager Mobilizing community workers Gathering community workers to educate people on how to protect themselves.  
       
Research Dept of Health Testing novel treatment methods Examine new treatment methods such as symptomatic treatment and their effectiveness. The county epidemiologists will carry out this process.  
County level manager Health worker performance Assess community health workers reliability using the compliance officers to learn efficient operations.  
legislature Studies on policy response Audit effectiveness of novel policy by health committee members.  
       

 

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