Examine the differences in nutritional needs throughout the life cycle.

To complete this examination, follow these steps:

Use a word-processing program, preferably Microsoft Word, to complete the examination.

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At the top of every page, include your name and student number.

Be sure to save your work. If you do not have access to Microsoft Word, you must properly format your document by clicking Save As, naming it using the student number_exam number format (for example, 12345678_007175), and choosing File Type: Rich Text Format. This exam must be uploaded as a .doc or .rtf file to be graded electronically.

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Expectations for This Project

You should be able to

Identify a nutritional topic of interest that can be applied to a current nutritional issue
Identify information that addresses the nutritional issue
Analyze information for application to a defined population
Examine areas in which additional information may be needed to help a defined population address a nutritional issue
Recommend approaches to distribute the nutritional information to a defined population

Topics

You can use a variety of topics as the focus of your academic research paper. General topics include the following:

Identify macro- and micronutrients, their functions, and their effects on health and well-being.
Examine the differences in nutritional needs throughout the life cycle.
Explain the various factors that affect the safety of food products and the new technologies that affect food supplies.

If you’re interested in a specific topic, you’ll need to include the signs and symptoms and the relationship of these manifestations to the nutritional disorder. You’ll need to also focus on the treatment, the expected outcome of the treatment, measures to determine if the outcome has been reached, and any actions that can be taken to prevent the health problem.

Examples of specific topics include the following:

Application of nutrigenomics
Use of MyPlate with a vegetarian eating plan
Fluid balance through the lifespan
The impact of nutrition on the development of
Hypertension
Osteoporosis
Osteoarthritis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Heart disease
Atherosclerosis
Protein-calorie malnutrition
Analysis of eating plans (fad diets) that restrict
Protein
Carbohydrates
Fats

What Is an Academic Paper?

An academic paper is a document that critically analyzes a specific topic. It begins with general information about the topic and then moves into the specifics. The specifics are explained by answering the “who, what, when, where, and why” about the topic. Some academic papers are written after a research study has been conducted. Others are written to support or refute a concept or idea.
Sections of the Paper

The paper should include the following sections:

Title page
Table of contents
Abstract
Introduction
General information
Application
Approaches or treatments
Expected outcomes/recommendations
Conclusion/summary
Reference list

Title Page

The title page identifies the title of the paper, your name and credentials, the course name, and the date. The title of the paper should reflect the content. For example, if you’re writing a paper on the importance of adequate vitamin C intake for older adults, appropriate titles might include

The Importance of Adequate Vitamin C When Aging
Vitamin C—An Essential Nutrient in the Aging Adult

Some examples of titles that would not capture the intention of the paper would be

The Role of Vitamin C in Bodily Functions
The Impact of Vitamin C on Health

Table of Contents

A table of contents identifies the sections within the research paper. This part of the paper is typically created last since it lists the topics and the associated page numbers within the paper.

The following is an example of a table of contents:

Section 1: Abstract Page 1
Section II: Introduction Page 2
Section III: Vitamin C: An Essential Nutrient Page 4
Abstract

The abstract is a summary of the entire paper. This part of the paper is also written after the entire paper is complete. The length of the abstract should be about 100 to 200 words and should include information that appears elsewhere in the paper. This is not the location to introduce new ideas, concepts, or information.

Here’s an example of an abstract:

Vitamin C has been identified as an essential nutrient for all age groups; however, it has been found to be lacking in those over age 65. Reasons for inadequate amounts of vitamin C include high intake of processed foods, limited ability to obtain fresh foods, and restricted income. Problems associated with low vitamin C levels in older adults include poor wound healing, frequent infections, fatigue, and increased onset of chronic illnesses. Strategies to increase the intake of vitamin C include selecting fresh or frozen foods over processed or canned; purchasing fresh produce when in season; and buying produce from local growers. Increasing the intake of vitamin C will reduce the frequency of acute illnesses and infections, allay the development of chronic illnesses, and improve energy levels. The importance of adequate vitamin C intake should be communicated through wellness programs, community health fairs, health and wellness clinics, and public service announcements targeting the older population.

This abstract is 153 words in length and covers all of the major areas that are to be included in the paper.
Introduction

The introduction is where the topic of interest is introduced to the reader. This part of the paper may be up to five or six paragraphs in length. Information that appears here may include generalities about the purpose of the paper, who will benefit from reading the information in this paper, why the topic is important, and the overall goal of writing the paper.

Information about the background of the topic appears here as additional evidence of the importance of the topic.
General Information

The general information section provides a global view of the topic you’ve chosen. This section may be approximately five or six paragraphs in length and serves to provide the reader with an overview of the concept or topic. Many resources on writing academic research papers consider this section to be the preferred location for placing the thesis statement. A thesis statement is the problem statement or an explanation of the issue.

Here you can include statistics about the nutritional issue or health problem caused by it, such as the number of people it affects, the locations where it most likely occurs, the time of year, and any other criteria that makes this an important issue to discuss.

You might want to create a diagram or table demonstrating the impact of the issue. A table can be inserted in a word processing program (such as Word). The following example that identifies the frequency of an issue according to gender, age, or calendar year.
Frequency of Vitamin C Deficiency in Older Adults Between 2001 and 2004
Frequency Deficiency Discovered Gender Year
Male Female
110 40 60 2001
72 32 40 2002
61 40 21 2003
108 48 60 2004

In this section, you would also place any pictures or illustrations that would help the reader understand the issue and its importance to nutrition. For example, an older person with a vitamin C deficiency may have bleeding gums. You might want to include a picture of bleeding gums within your paper. Here are some websites that often have royalty-free clip art that you could use in your paper:

Shutter Stock
Dreams Time
Foto Search
iStock
Getty Images

Application

The application section of the paper provides much more substantial information about the topic. Here, you should focus on

Who would find this topic of interests
When this topic needs to be addressed
Where this topic has specific applicability
Why this topic is important

Approaches/Treatments

Use of the approaches/treatments section will depend on the topic. If the topic is a specific nutrient, strategies to ensure that the nutrient is being ingested in recommended amounts may appear here. You may also include a table or image here that identifies the recommended amount of the nutrient.

If the topic is a specific health problem, such as obesity or anemia, then this section may identify actions to take to help eliminate or reduce the effects of the health problem.

The length of this section will depend on the topic selected and the amount of creativity used when designing strategies.
Expected Outcomes/Recommendations

The expected outcomes/recommendations section identifies the results expected when a strategy to address the topic or health problem is implemented. Each outcome should identify the approach to be used to measure the effectiveness. Measurements should be objective or use concrete data such as laboratory values, changes in body weight, amount of time engaging in an activity, and so on.

From the expected outcomes, recommendations can be made. Here you are to identify steps or actions for a person to take to adjust or change nutritional habits to achieve a specific outcome.

The overall length of this section will depend on the number and type of expected outcomes and the associated recommendations.
Conclusion/Summary

The final section of the paper is the conclusion or summary. Here all of the major points discussed in the paper are reviewed along with the conclusions formed by analyzing the topic.
Reference List

All academic papers must contain a list of references used when researching and writing the paper. There are a variety of approaches when listing the reference citations. Examples are shown below.

Print resources:

Author last name, Author first initial of first name. (YEAR). Name of the book. (edition of the book). City where the book was published: Name of the publisher.

Author last name, Author first initial of first name. (YEAR). Name of the article. Name of the magazine in which the article appeared. The volume and issue of the magazine. The page numbers.

Online resources:

Website. Name of the web page. Name of the article. Date the article was posted/written. Date you accessed the article. The complete web URL.

Keep the following in mind when identifying/using content from the Internet for a research paper:

Be sure that the website is valid. Examples of valid websites include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), MedLine Plus, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and recognized agencies such as the American Diabetes Association (ADA), American Heart Association (AHA), the American Lung Association (ALA), and the American Cancer Society (ACS).
Look at the webpage and find the date when the page was last updated. The date should be within the last few years.
Find the physical street address and telephone number for the website. Websites that don’t publish a physical street address or telephone number to call for more information may be blogs and, therefore, not a validated website.

Additional Resources

Since this may be the first time that you’re writing a research paper, you might want to view the following videos for additional tips and techniques:

How to Write a Research Paper Fast
Tips for Writing a College Research Paper
10 Steps for Writing a Research Paper

Writing the Paper

The following instructions should be implemented when preparing your paper.

Set all page margins to be 1 inch.
Begin each section on a new page.
Use the font Times New Roman at 12 point.
Support your opinion by citing specific information from the textbook, websites, and any other references, using correct APA guidelines.
Write the table of contents after the entire paper has been written.
Write the abstract after the entire paper has been written.
Proofread your completed paper several times to check for typographical errors. Read through the entire paper to make sure you have included all essential elements and that the correct page numbers are listed on the Table of Contents.
Save the completed paper as a Word document (.doc, .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf). We can’t accept PDF files for evaluation.

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