ENERGY METABOLISM AND WEIGHT CONTROL

Directions. Answer the following questions. Please include the questions with your answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Do not copied from online sources. Define the following

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Adaptive Thermogenesis

Aerobic

Amenorrhea

Anabolism

Anaerobic

Anorexia nervosa

Appetite

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Bariatric

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Basal metabolism

Behavior Modification

Binge eating disorder

Body composition

Body Mass Index

Bomb Calorimeter

Brite adipocytes

Brown Adipose Tissue

Bulimia nervosa

Catabolism

Cathartic

Central Obesity

Clinically severe obesity

CoA

Coenzymes

Cori cycle

Coupled reactions

Disordered eating

Eating disorders

Ectopic fat

Electron transport chain

Emetic

Endoscopic procedures

Energy balance

Enzymes

Fad Diets

Female athlete triad

Fuel

Gastric aspiration

Gene pool

Ghrelin

Gluconeogenisis

Glycolysis

Hunger

Hyperplastic Obesity

Hypertrophic Obesity

Hypothesis

Inflammation

Insulin Resistance

Intragastric balloon

Ketoacid

Ketone bodies

Lactate (in the context of energy metabolism)

Lean Body Mass

Leptin

Leptin resistance

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolism

Mitochondria

Muscle dysmorphia

Neuropeptide Y

Normal-weight obesity syndrome

Obese

Obesogenic environment

Orthorexia nervosa

Overweight

Photosynthesis

Physiological fuel value

Pyruvate

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

Satiating

Satiation

Satiety

Set Point

Stress fractures

Subcutaneous Fat

Successful weight-loss maintenance

TCA cycle

Thermic Effect of food (TEF)

Thermogenesis

Underweight

Visceral Fat

Waist circumference

Weight cycling

Weight management

2. Your friend Tiffany is taking a nutrition course at a local community college. She is having difficulty understanding the unit about the energy yielding pathways of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Help her by discussing how the basic units of carbohydrate, protein, and fat are utilized in energy pathways to produce energy. Be thorough. Include their differences and similarities?

3. Tina W. is a 44 year old white female who has tried a number of weight-loss programs to include very strict diets. She has never exercised in her previous weight loss attempts. She takes several cardiac medications, none of which she can remember. She is 5’9” and weighs 195 pounds. Her lowest body weight was 135 pounds, when she was 30 years old. (She was able to maintain that weight for two years.) Her blood pressure is high, at 160/90. Tina mentioned that she tried numerous diets as a teenager when she weighed 170 pounds for 3 years.

a. Using the formulae in your text book, calculate Tina’s:

1. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) (Hint: Be sure to read note b in the BMR column of Table 8-1). What is the meaning of your calculation?

2. Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) Assume a sedentary activity level. What is the meaning of your calculation?

Show your work for both questions.

b. What types of exercise would you be likely to discuss with Tina?

c. What would be the goals of her treatment?

4. Determine your BMI. Is your BMI in a healthy range? If not, why not? Do you believe that measuring body fat percentage may more accurately reflect your body composition? Briefly discuss each body composition measure (e.g. skinfold calipers, bioelectrical impedance analysis, etc.) and discuss why measuring body fat is important in assessing a client’s overall health status.

5. Select one fad diet from any popular publication or online source. Using the ‘How To H9-1’ Box for Identifying a Fad Diet or Other Weight-Loss Scam (Highlight 9, page 291) of your textbook, evaluate the diet.

6. List and briefly explain the four main components of energy expenditure?

7. Kristin B. , like many Americans is overweight. Kristin is 43-year-old and a mother of two. She has gained 40 pounds since the birth of her youngest child five years ago. She is 65 inches tall and weighs 175 pounds with a BMI of 29.1. Her waist circumference is 37.5 inches. Kristin can’t figure out why it is so hard to lose weight and keep it off.

Kristin decides something must be wrong with her to be such a dieting failure. Maybe she just doesn’t have sufficient willpower or maybe she has abnormal metabolism. She feels tired most of the time and has very little energy. She is very busy with her children and has a demanding job as a middle school teacher. Kristin tries to cook healthy meals for her family but is often too tired or stressed to bother, so she stops to get some fast food on her way home. To make matters worse, her seven year-old son recently came home from school and said the kids were teasing him for being fat.

Kristin’s father recently died from complications of type 2 diabetes. At her last medical checkup, her blood pressure was mildly elevated but all of her laboratory blood tests were normal.

Kristin decides it is time to make some changes for her entire family but she doesn’t know quite where to start. She hopes she can help her son by finding a diet that works for him. Complicating the problem is the fact that Kristin’s husband doesn’t have a weight problem. Knowing that you are studying nutrition, Kristin decides to ask you for advice.

a. Based on her health history and physical measurements, describe how you would determine the seriousness of Kristin’s weight gain in relation to her health.

b. Using the information in chapter 9, what would you estimate to be a reasonable amount of weight for Kristin to lose over the next six months?

c. What are some advantages for Kristin of keeping a food and exercise record? What other habits besides food intake and physical activity may be especially useful for Kristin to record?

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