U214 A TMA Week 6 Length: 1500-2000 words


Kachru (1992) modeled the spread of English in the Three Circles Model. Explain Kachru’s three-circle model. Highlight its advantages as well as limitations.

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Areas of Discussion

Areas of discussing the TMA’s topic are related to U214 Course Book 1, English in the World, and particularly Unit 1.

Important Guidelines

Discussing the TMA’s subject matter has to draw on the following ideas:

1. How and why do we need to model the spread of English? (5 pts)

2. What do the acronyms ENL, ESL and EFL stand for and what do they refer to? (5pts)

3. The Three Circles of English Model (5 pts)

4. Your evaluation of the advantages and limitations of the Model (5 pts).

N.B. Students need to read in – depth Unit 1 and think about the TMA questions as they read. Students need to take notes relating to the TMA question. When writing, students need to pay attention to structure, layout and correct language and use appropriate referencing and citation. Please note that, in addition to the textbook materials, students are strongly recommended to consult two or more of the following references:


Recommended Bibliography

  • Crystal, D. (2007). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Galloway, N. & Rose, H. (2015). Introducing Global Englishes. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge
  • Jennifer, J. (2003). World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Schneider, E. W. (2007). Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge University Press.
  • Widdowson, H. G. (1997). “EIL, ESL, EFL: Global Issues and Local Interests”. World Englishes, 16: 135–146.
  • Using the e-library

You can include information from the course book but it is highly recommended to use external sources from the e-library.

  • You are requested to visit the e-library on campus and use it to carry out your TMAs properly.
  • You are also requested to show your tutor that you used the e-library to complete your TMA. But avoid submitting a copy/paste paper, it is a plagiarized work, which is strictly banned and firmly penalized by AOU.

Guidelines on Plagiarism

If you submit an assignment that contains work other than yours without acknowledging the sources, you are committing plagiarism. This might occur when:

  • Using a sentence or phrase that you have come across
  • Copying word-for-word directly from a text
  • Paraphrasing the words from the text very closely
  • Using text downloaded from the Internet
  • Borrowing statistics or assembled fact from another person or source
  • Copying or downloading figures, photographs, pictures or diagrams without acknowledging your sources
  • Copying from the notes or essays of a fellow student

(Slightly adapted from OU document on quoting versus plagiarism)

It is important to remember that plagiarism is strictly barred and would be subject to punitive action by the Arab Open University.

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