Your goal is to SUMMARIZE – put things in your own words from your understanding of the paragraph. Your goal is not to have one big quote – so please use your own words and summarize the material by paraphrasing. NO QUOTING.
No culture is, or has been, characterized by a permanently fixed set of material objects, systems of organization, or even ideologies. Cultures are essentially in a state of flux. Some changes are major and pervasive. The transition from hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmer, affected markedly every facet of the cultures experiencing that change and the experiences of the people living in those cultures. Profound, too, was the impact of the Industrial Revolution and its associated urbanization on all the societies that it has touched. However, many changes are so slight individually as to go almost unnoticed at their inception, though cumulatively they may substantially alter the affected culture. Think of how the culture of the United States differs today from what you know it to have been in 1940. Such cumulative changes occur because the cultural traits of any group are not independent, they are clustered in a coherent and integrated pattern. Change on a small scale can have wide repercussions as associated traits accommodate to the adopted adjustment. Change, both major and minor, within cultures, is induced by innovation and diffusion. Innovation implies changes to a culture that results from ideas created within the social group itself. Diffusion is the process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another.
Source: Bjelland, Mark D. and Jerome D. Fellmann. 2013. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities. 12th edition. New York:McGraw Hill. p. 52.
When continental glaciers began their retreat some 11,000 years ago, the activity and awareness spaces of Stone Age humans were limited. As a result of pressures of numbers, need for food, changes in climate, and other inducements, those spaces were collectively enlarged to encompass most of the terrestrial world. Migration – the permanent or planned long term relocation of residential place – has been one of the enduring themes of human history. It has contributed to the evolution of separate cultures, to the diffusion of those cultures and their components by interchange and communication, and to the frequently complex mix of peoples and cultures found in different areas of the world. Indeed, it has been a major force in shaping the world as it is today and continues to be an important force in ongoing world change. Massive movements of people within countries, across national borders, and between continents have emerged as a pressing concern of recent decades. They affect national economic structures, determine population density and distribution patterns, alter traditional ethnic, linguistic, and religious mixtures, and inflame national debates and international tensions.
Source: Bjelland, Mark D. and Jerome D. Fellmann. 2013. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities. 12th edition. New York:McGraw Hill. p.78.
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